Glossary

Last updated on Sep 14, 2020



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A


AAC

Abbreviation of Advanced Audio Coding. A standardized, lossy compression and encoding scheme for digital audio. Designed to be the successor of the MP3 format, AAC generally achieves better sound quality than MP3 at similar bitrates.

AAC-LD

Abbreviation of AAC Low Delay. An audio compression standard designed to combine the advantages of perceptual audio coding with the low delay necessary for two-way communication. It is closely derived from the MPEG-2 Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) standard.

AAC Low Delay

Abbreviated as AAC-LD. An audio compression standard designed to combine the advantages of perceptual audio coding with the low delay necessary for two-way communication. It is closely derived from the MPEG-2 Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) standard.

ABR

Abbreviation of Adaptive Bitrate. Adaptive bitrate streaming is when the system detects fluctuations in the end-users bandwidth and automatically changes the bitrate so the video can continue without buffering.

ABR Cascade

The set of outputs that make up adaptive bitrate groups.

Absolute Domain Name

Absolute domain name, sometimes also referred to as a fully-qualified domain name. A domain name that specifies its exact location in the tree hierarchy of the Domain Name System (DNS).

Active Backup

Only one NIC slave in the bond is active at a time. A different slave becomes active only when the active slave fails. This mode provides fault tolerance.

Active Load Balancing

(ALB). The receive load balancing is achieved by Archive Resolution Protocol (ARP) negotiation. The bonding driver intercepts the ARP replies sent by the server on their way out and overwrites the source hardware address with the unique hardware address of one of the slaves in the bond such that different clients use different hardware addresses for the server.

Adaptive Bitrate

Abbreviated as ABR. Adaptive bitrate streaming is when the system detects fluctuations in the end-users bandwidth and automatically changes the bitrate so the video can continue without buffering.

Advanced Audio Coding

Abbreviated as AAC. A standardized, lossy compression and encoding scheme for digital audio. Designed to be the successor of the MP3 format, Advanced Audio Coding generally achieves better sound quality than MP3 at similar bitrates.

Advanced Encryption Standard

Abbreviated as AES. A specification for the encryption of electronic data established by the U.S. National Institute of Standards.

Advanced Video Coding

Abbreviated as AVC. A standard for video compression, used for the recording, compression, and distribution of high definition video.

AES

Abbreviation of Advanced Encryption Standard. A specification for the encryption of electronic data established by the U.S. National Institute of Standards.

ALB

Active Load Balancing. The receive load balancing is achieved by Archive Resolution Protocol (ARP) negotiation. The bonding driver intercepts the ARP replies sent by the server on their way out and overwrites the source hardware address with the unique hardware address of one of the slaves in the bond such that different clients use different hardware addresses for the server.

Analog

A continuous signal that contains time-varying quantities. Unlike a digital signal which has a discrete value at each sampling point, an analog signal has constant fluctuations. 

Aspect Ratio

The proportion of width to height.

Audio Bitrate

The number of bits used per unit of time to represent an audio stream. Measured in kilobits per second (kbps).

Audio Gain

Measures of the ability of a circuit (often an amplifier) to increase the power or amplitude of a signal from the input to the output, by adding energy to the signal converted from some power supply. Measured in decibels (dB).

Auto-Negotiation

Auto-Negotiation is used to detect the presence of a connection to another device. These "connection present" pulses are sent by Ethernet devices when they are not sending or receiving any frames.

AVC

Abbreviation of Advanced Video Coding. Also known as H.264. A standard for video compression used for the recording, compression, and distribution of high definition video.

B


Baseband Video

Baseband is a signal is transmitted without any shift in the range of frequencies of the signal. The video is sent point-to-point, such as the video output of a VCR to the video input of a monitor. 

Baseline Profile

Targeted at light applications such as video conferencing or playback on mobile devices with limited processing power.

Bash

A Unix shell and command processor that typically runs in a text window, where the user types commands that cause actions.

B-Frame

Contains difference information from the preceding and following I- or P-Frame within a Group of Pictures (GOP).

Bitrate

The number of bits that are conveyed or processed per unit of time (e.g. kibit/s, Mibit/s, Gibit/s).

Blade

A server architecture that houses multiple server modules ("blades") in a single chassis. It is widely used in data centers to save space and improve system management. Either self-standing or rack mounted, the chassis provides the power supply, and each blade has its own CPU, RAM and storage.

Bonding

Combines several NICs into a single link to achieve high-availability, load-balancing, maximum throughput, or a combination thereof. Once bonded, two NICs appear to be the same physical device and have the same MAC address. aka NIC teaming.

Bumper

A Bumper ad is one of four ad types used by an Ad Policy to specify when the ad plays. Bumpers play before the pre-roll ad. 

Bumpers + Pre-roll + mediaObject + mediaObject-chapterPoint + Mid-roll +mediaObject + Post-roll

C


CA

A certificate authority or certification authority (CA) is an entity that issues digital certificates, which certifies the ownership of a public key by the named subject of the certificate.

CABAC

Abbreviation of Context-based Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding. More advanced and gives a better bit-rate-to-quality economy at the cost of higher processing power. For higher-quality applications such as large-format web video.

CAVLC

Abbreviation of Context-based Adaptive Variable Length Coding. A form of entropy coding used in AVC video encoding. An inherently lossless compression technique.

CBR

Abbreviation of Constant Bit Rate. The encoder/transcoder generates a constant number of bits over a period of time.

CDN

Abbreviation of Content Delivery Network. A large distributed system of servers deployed in multiple data centers in the Internet. The goal of a CDN is to serve content.

Certificate Authority

A certificate authority or certification authority (CA) is an entity that issues digital certificates, which certifies the ownership of a public key by the named subject of the certificate.

CIDR Notation

CIDR notation is a compact representation of an IP address and its associated routing prefix. The notation is constructed from an IP address, a slash ('/') character, and a decimal number. The number is the count of leading 1 bits in the subnet mask. Larger values here indicate smaller networks. The maximum size of the network is given by the number of addresses that are possible with the remaining, least-significant bits below the prefix.

CIFS

Abbreviation of Common Internet File System. Also known as Server Message Block, operates as an application-layer network protocol mainly used for providing shared access to files, printers, and serial ports and miscellaneous communications between nodes on a network.

CLI

Abbreviation of Command Line Interface. A means of interaction with a computer program where the user (or client) enter lines of text to issue commands to the program.

Closed Captioning

Abbreviated as CC. The act or process of including text as the transcription of the audio portion to a digital video stream or program. Closed Captions is the actual text that appears on the screen during closed captioning.

Cloud Encoder

An encoder that does not include any video capture cards. A cloud encoder requires the use of a source encoder streaming input.

Codec

enCOder/DECoder. A device or computer program capable of encoding and/or decoding a digital data stream or signal. A codec is a particular technology or method used to compress an electronic signal, such as a video or audio recording.

Color Space

Defines colors as a function of the absolute reference frame, color spaces, along with device profiling, to allow reproducible representations of color, in both analogue and digital representations.

Command Line Interface

Abbreviated as CLI. A means of interaction with a computer program where the user (or client) enter lines of text to issue commands to the program.

Common Internet File System

Abbreviated as CIFS. Also known as Server Message Block, operates as an application-layer network protocol mainly used for providing shared access to files, printers, and serial ports and miscellaneous communications between nodes on a network.

Composite Video

An analog video transmission (without audio) that carries standard definition video typically at 480i or 576i resolution.

Connection Speed

The performance of an Internet connection based on the number of bytes per second that data travels from the user's device to the Internet (upload) or from the Internet to the user's device (download).

Constant Bit Rate

Abbreviated as CBR. The encoder/transcoder generates a constant number of bits over a period of time.

Content Delivery Network

Abbreviated as CDN. A large distributed system of servers deployed in multiple data centers in the Internet. The goal of a CDN is to serve content.

Context-based Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding

Abbreviated as CABAC. More advanced and gives a better bit-rate-to-quality economy at the cost of higher processing power. For higher-quality applications such as large-format web video.

Context-based Adaptive Variable Length Coding

Abbreviated as CAVLC. A form of entropy coding used in AVC video encoding. An inherently lossless compression technique.

Cooperative Research and Development Agreement

Abbreviated as CRADA. A written agreement between a private company and a government agency to work together on a project.

CRADA

Abbreviation of Cooperative Research and Development Agreement. A written agreement between a private company and a government agency to work together on a project.

cURL

Command line tool for getting and sending files using the URL syntax.

D


DASH

Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP. An adaptive bitrate streaming technique that enables high quality streaming of media content over the Internet delivered from conventional HTTP web servers.

Data Compression

Encoding information using fewer bits than the original representation.

Data Field

An area into which a user types or pastes text or a smaller piece of data from a larger collection (e.g., database fields).

Data Panel

A formatted display of information, a display component that defines the locations and characteristics of display fields on a display surface.

DEB

The extension of the Debian Software Package format and the most often used name for such binary packages.

Deprovisioning

The act of removing access from and freeing up resources reserved by end users and their file transfer workflows. Rapid removal of access upon termination or end of contract is key to any organization.

Design by Contract

Design by contract (DbC), also known as contract programming, programming by contract and design-by-contract programming, is an approach for designing software.

It prescribes that software designers should define formal, precise and verifiable interface specifications for software components, which extend the ordinary definition of abstract data types with preconditions, postconditions and invariants. These specifications are referred to as "contracts", in accordance with a conceptual metaphor with the conditions and obligations of business contracts.

DHCP

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. A standardized network protocol used on Internet Protocol (IP) networks for dynamically assigning network configuration parameters, such as IP addresses.

Digital Rights Management

Abbreviated as DRM. Various access control technologies that are used to restrict usage of proprietary hardware and copyrighted works. 

Dimension

dimension describes data. For example, dimensions are the characteristics of an object that can be given different values.

Directory Rollover

For HLS Akamai HD network distribution. When enabled, it limits the number of .ts segments to 2000 before rolling over to a new directory.

DisplayPort

A digital display interface developed by the Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA). The interface is primarily used to connect a video source to a display device such as a computer monitor, though it can also be used to carry audio, USB, and other forms of data.

DNS Server

Domain Name System server. The most important function of DNS servers is the translation (resolution) of human-memorable domain names and hostnames into the corresponding numeric Internet Protocol (IP) addresses.

Domain Name System Server

Domain Name System server. The most important function of DNS servers is the translation (resolution) of human-memorable domain names and hostnames into the corresponding numeric Internet Protocol (IP) addresses.

Downlink

A connection from data communications equipment towards data terminal equipment.

Downstream Connection

A connection from data communications equipment towards data terminal equipment.

DRM

Abbreviation of Digital Rights Management. Various access control technologies that are used to restrict usage of proprietary hardware and copyrighted works. 

Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP

Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP. An adaptive bitrate streaming technique that enables high quality streaming of media content over the Internet delivered from conventional HTTP web servers.

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. A standardized network protocol used on Internet Protocol (IP) networks for dynamically assigning network configuration parameters, such as IP addresses.

E


Edge Device

A device that provides an entry point into enterprise or service provider core networks. Examples include routers, routing switches, and video encoders and decoders.

Edge Node

A computer that acts as an end-user portal for communication with other nodes in cluster computing. Edge nodes are sometimes called gateway nodes.

Encryption

The process of encoding a message or information in such a way that only authorized parties can access it.

Endpoint

A URI that points to a function or operation provided by the API, e.g., /apis/demos.

Error Correction

Refers to the automatic correction of errors that arise from the incorrect transmission of digital data.

Ethernet

A family of computer networking technologies commonly used in local area networks (LAN), metro area networks (MAN) and wide area networks (WAN).

F


Failover

Switching to a redundant or standby computer server, system, hardware component or network upon the failure or abnormal termination of the previously active application, server, system, hardware component or network.

FEC

Abbreviation of Forward Error Correction. A technique used for controlling errors in data transmission over unreliable or noisy communication channels.

File Transfer Protocol

Abbreviated as FTP. Standard network protocol used for the transfer of computer files between a client and server on a computer network.

Firewall

A network security system that monitors and control the incoming and outgoing network traffic based on predetermined security rules. 

Forward Error Correction

Abbreviated as FEC. A technique used for controlling errors in data transmission over unreliable or noisy communication channels.

FQDN

Abbreviation of Fully-qualified domain name. Sometimes also referred to as an absolute domain name. A domain name that specifies its exact location in the tree hierarchy of the Domain Name System (DNS).

Frame Rate

The video frame rate per second. The number of still images that are displayed in a given time interval to provide the illusion that the images are moving. A typical frame rate is 24 frames/second. (PAL uses 25fps while NTSC uses 29.97). Each picture of a video – either a frame or a field – is partitioned into as many macroblocks as necessary to cover the picture area. These macroblocks serve as the basic element for operations such as spatial/temporal compression, motion compensation, and re- encoding.

FTP

Abbreviation of File Transfer Protocol. Standard network protocol used for the transfer of computer files between a client and server on a computer network.

Fully-Qualified Domain Name

Abbreviated as FQDN. Sometimes also referred to as an absolute domain name. A domain name that specifies its exact location in the tree hierarchy of the Domain Name System (DNS).

G


Garbage Timing

Refers to the scheduled execution of a background maintenance task to clean up old messages and alerts.

Gateway

A network node equipped for interfacing with another network that uses different protocols.

Globally Unique Identifier

Abbreviated as GUID. A 128-bit integer number that identifies resources. The format is a defined sequence of 32 hex digits grouped into chunks of 8-4-4-4-12.

GOP

Abbreviation of Group of Pictures. Specifies the order in which intra- and inter-frames are arranged.

Group of Pictures

Abbreviated as GOP. Specifies the order in which intra- and inter-frames are arranged.

GUID

Abbreviation of Globally Unique Identifier. A 128-bit integer number that identifies resources. The format is a defined sequence of 32 hex digits grouped into chunks of 8-4-4-4-12.

H


H.264

Also known as Advanced Video Coding (AVC). A standard for video compression used for the recording, compression, and distribution of high definition video.

H.265

Also known as High Efficiency Video Coding and MPEG- H Part 2. HEVC is a draft video compression standard, currently under development as a successor to H.264/MPEG-4 AVC (Advanced Video Coding).

HDCP

Abbreviation of High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection. A form of digital copy protection developed by Intel Corporation to prevent copying of digital audio and video content as it travels across connections.

HDS

Abbreviation of HTTP Dynamic Streaming. The process of efficiently delivering streaming video to users by dynamically switching among different streams of varying quality and size during playback.

HE-AAC

Abbreviation of High Efficiency Advanced Audio Coding. An audio coding format for lossy data compression of digital audio defined as an MPEG-4 Audio profile in ISO/IEC 14496-3.

HEVC

Abbreviation of High Efficiency Video Coding. Also known as H.265 and MPEG- H Part 2. HEVC is a draft video compression standard, currently under development as a successor to H.264/MPEG-4 AVC (Advanced Video Coding).

High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection

Abbreviated as HDCP. A form of digital copy protection developed by Intel Corporation to prevent copying of digital audio and video content as it travels across connections.

High-Efficiency Advanced Audio Coding

Abbreviated as HE-AAC. An audio coding format for lossy data compression of digital audio defined as an MPEG-4 Audio profile in ISO/IEC 14496-3.

High-Efficiency Video Coding

Abbreviated as HEVC. Also known as H.265 and MPEG- H Part 2. HEVC is a draft video compression standard, currently under development as a successor to H.264/MPEG-4 AVC (Advanced Video Coding).

High Profile

Most efficient of the top three profiles. Packs more quality into a given bitrate. Hardest to process. Originally intended for high- definition applications such as Blu-Ray, however becoming popular for web-video applications due to the increase in processing power.

HLS

HTTP Live Streaming. An HTTP-based media streaming communications protocol implemented by Apple Inc. as part of its QuickTime, Safari, OS X, and iOS software.

Hostname

Label that is assigned to a device on a network and identifies that device in electronic communication, such as on the Web.

HTTP

Hypertext Transfer Protocol. Application protocol for distributed information systems. It is the foundation for communication on the World Wide Web.

HTTP Dynamic Streaming

Abbreviated as HDS. The process of efficiently delivering streaming video to users by dynamically switching among different streams of varying quality and size during playback.

HTTP Live Streaming

(HLS) An HTTP-based media streaming communications protocol implemented by Apple Inc. as part of its QuickTime, Safari, OS X, and iOS software.

HTTPS

HTTP Secure. Adaptation of HTTP for secure communication over a network and is widely used on the Internet.

I


IEEE 802.3ad Dynamic Link Aggregation

Creates aggregation groups that share the same speed and duplex settings. Utilize all slave network interfaces in the active aggregator group according to the 802.3ad specification. This mode is similar to XOR Sequential mode and supports the same balancing policies. The link is set up dynamically between two LACP-supporting peers.

I-Frame

Intra-Coded Picture, usually referred to as a reference frame. An I-Frame contains the full image of the picture (that is, it is not a delta).

IGMPv3

Internet Group Management Protocol, Version 3. IGMPv3 adds support for source-specific multicast (SSM), which is a method of delivering multicast packets in which the only packets that are delivered to a receiver are those originating from a specific source address requested by the receiver. By so limiting the source, SSM reduces demands on the network and improves security.

IMAG

Image Magnification. Used in the audiovisual production industry referring to large-scale theatrical or concert video projection to enable audience members seated at great distance from the stage to see details of the performer's body language and facial expressions that could not be seen with the unaided eye.

Image Magnification

(IMAG) Used in the audiovisual production industry referring to large-scale theatrical or concert video projection to enable audience members seated at great distance from the stage to see details of the performer's body language and facial expressions that could not be seen with the unaided eye.

InfoByte

A quick how-to demo used to illustrate a particular concept or task.

Ingest

The process of obtaining and importing data for immediate use or storage in a database. 

Interlace

Interlacing video is a technique for doubling the perceived frame rate of a video display without consuming extra bandwidth. 

Interpolation

Filling in frames between the keyframes. Generates intermediate frames between two images to give the appearance that the first image evolves smoothly into the second.

Intra-Coded Picture

(I-Frame) usually referred to as a reference frame. An I-Frame contains the full image of the picture (that is, it is not a delta).

IP Address

Internet Protocol address. A numerical label assigned to each device connected to a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication.

IPTV

Abbreviation of Internet Protocol television, is the delivery of television content over Internet Protocol (IP) networks.

ISO-639-2

ISO 639-2:1998, "Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code" lists three-letter codes for the representation of the names of languages. 

J


JavaScript Object Notation

Abbreviated as JSON. An open-standard format that uses human-readable text to transmit data objects consisting of attribute–value pairs.

JITC

Abbreviation of Joint Interoperability Test Command. Conducts testing of national security systems and information technology systems hardware, and software. Services include developmental, conformance, interoperability, operational, and validation testing.

JITC Motion Imagery Tool

Abbreviated as JMIT. Ensures that motion imagery systems conform to the JITC standards.

Jitter

Deviation from true periodicity of a presumably periodic signal. Can cause a display monitor to flicker, affect the performance of processors, introduce clicks or other undesired effects in audio signals and cause loss of transmitted data between network devices.

JMIT

Abbreviation of JITC Motion Imagery Tool. Ensures that motion imagery systems conform to the JITC standards.

Joint Interoperability Test Command

Abbreviated as JITC. Conducts testing of national security systems and information technology systems hardware, and software. Services include developmental, conformance, interoperability, operational, and validation testing.

JSON

Abbreviation for JavaScript Object Notation. An open-standard format that uses human-readable text to transmit data objects consisting of attribute–value pairs.

K


Key Frame

Full frames directly derived from the original source without the use of references to other frames within the video.

Key Length Value

Abbreviated as KLV. Refers to metadata packets. A data encoding standard, often used to embed information in video feeds. Items are encoded into Key-Length-Value triplets, where key identifies the data, length specifies the data's length, and value is the data itself.

KLV

Abbreviation of Key Length Value. Refers to metadata packets. A data encoding standard, often used to embed information in video feeds. Items are encoded into Key-Length-Value triplets, where key identifies the data, length specifies the data's length, and value is the data itself.

L


Latency

The time it takes for a bit of data to travel across a network from one communication endpoint to another. Many factors can affect the latency of a network.

LATM

Abbreviation of Low Overhead Audio Transport Multiplex. An interleaved multiple stream version of a LOAS.

Load Balancing

Improves the distribution of workloads across multiple computing resources. Aims to optimize resource use, maximize throughput, minimize response time, and avoid overload of any single resource.

LOAS

Abbreviation of Low Overhead Audio Stream. A self-synchronizing format that encapsulates not only AAC, but any MPEG-4 audio compression scheme such as Twin VQ and ALS.

Lossless Compression

Decompression process which results in a file identical to the original.

Lossy Compression

Process by which the data is reduced in such a manner that it takes significantly less space than lossless compression alone, simply by discarding some, possibly most of the original data. The trick is to discard in such a way that the missing information will not be obvious.

Low Overhead Audio Stream

Abbreviated as LOAS. A self-synchronizing format that encapsulates not only AAC, but any MPEG-4 audio compression scheme such as Twin VQ and ALS.

Low Overhead Audio Transport Multiplex

Abbreviated as LATM. An interleaved multiple stream version of a LOAS.

M


MAC Address

Abbreviation of Media Access Control address. A unique identifier assigned to a network interface card, usually assigned by the network card manufacturer.

Main Profile

More capabilities than Baseline, better efficiency than baseline, but comes at the cost of a relatively higher CPU overhead. Usually used in medium-quality web video applications.

Maximum Transmission Unit

(MTU) Specifies the maximum allowed size of IP packets for the encoded or transcoded stream.

MBR

Abbreviation of Multi-Bitrate. Multi-bitrate streaming is when the same stream is available with different bitrates for the user.

Media Access Control Address

Abbreviated as MAC address. A unique identifier assigned to a network interface card, usually assigned by the network card manufacturer.

Metadata

Data that provides information about other data.

Metric

metric measures data. For example, metrics are the individual element of a dimension which can be measured as a sum or ratio. 

Mid-Roll

A mid-roll ad is one of four ad types used by an Ad Policy to specify when the ad plays. Mid-Roll ads require VOD content with chapter points. Mid-Roll ads play at each chapter point. 

Bumpers + Pre-roll + mediaObject + mediaObject-chapterPoint + Mid-roll +mediaObject + Post-roll

MKCOL

WebDAV HTTP extension verb for creating collections/directories.

MOOV Atom

A self-contained data unit that contains information about the video file; such as, timescale, duration, display characteristics of the movie, etc. Also known as the movie atom.

Movie Atom

A self-contained data unit that contains information about the video file; such as, timescale, duration, display characteristics of the movie, etc. Also known as the MOOV Atom.

MP3

MPEG-1 or MPEG-2 Audio Layer III. An audio coding format for digital audio.

MPEG

Moving Picture Experts Group. A group of authorities that set standards for audio and video compression and transmission. 

MPEG-H Part 2

Also known as High Efficiency Video Coding and H.265. HEVC is a draft video compression standard, currently under development as a successor to H.264/MPEG-4 AVC (Advanced Video Coding).

MPEG Transport Stream

(MTS, or TS) A standard format for transmission and storage of audio, video, and Program and System Information Protocol (PSIP) data. It is used in broadcast systems such as DVB, ATSC, and IPTV.

MPEG TS

MPEG Transport Stream (MTS, or TS). A standard format for transmission and storage of audio, video, and Program and System Information Protocol (PSIP) data. It is used in broadcast systems such as DVB, ATSC, and IPTV.

MTS

MPEG Transport Stream (MTS, or TS). A standard format for transmission and storage of audio, video, and Program and System Information Protocol (PSIP) data. It is used in broadcast systems such as DVB, ATSC, and IPTV.

MTU

Maximum Transmission Unit. Specifies the maximum allowed size of IP packets for the encoded or transcoded stream.

Multi-Bitrate

Abbreviated as MBR. Multi-bitrate streaming is when the same stream is available with different bitrates for the user.

Multicast

Group communication where information is addressed to a group of destination computers simultaneously. 

Multicast Address

A logical identifier for a group of hosts in a computer network that are available to process datagrams or frames intended to be multicast for a designated network service.

Multi-Tenant

A cloud computing architecture that allows customers to share computing resources in a public or private cloud. Within the cloud infrastructure, each tenant's data is inaccessible to all other tenants, and can only be reached with the cloud provider's permissions.

N


Navigational Blade

Navigational Blade or Blade. A GUI element that allows you to expand/collapse between related views or drill down to a more detailed view.

NDPP

Abbreviation of Network Device Protection Profile. U.S. Government Approved Protection Profile.

Network Adaptive Encoding

Detects changes in the available bandwidth and adjusts the video bitrate accordingly. This negotiation assures optimal stream delivery.

Network Device Protection Profile

Abbreviated as NDPP. U.S. Government Approved Protection Profile.

Network Interface Card/Controller

Abbreviated as NIC. A computer hardware component that connects a computer to a computer network.

Network Time Protocol

Abbreviated as NTP. A networking protocol for clock synchronization between computer systems over packet-switched, variable-latency data networks.

NIC

Abbreviation of Network interface card or network interface controller. A computer hardware component that connects a computer to a computer network.

nslookup

Name server lookup. A network administration command-line tool available for many computer operating systems for querying the Domain Name System (DNS) to obtain domain name or IP address mapping or for any other specific DNS record.

NTP

Abbreviation of Network Time Protocol. A networking protocol for clock synchronization between computer systems over packet-switched, variable-latency data networks.

O


onCaptionInfo

Used for closed captioning in the Flash environment. The captions are embedded in the onCaptionInfo metadata.

onCuePoint

Used for closed captioning in the Flash environment. This handler triggers actions when the video reaches a specific cue point, which lets you synchronize other actions in your application with video playback events.

onMetaData

Used for closed captioning in the Flash environment. Establishes a listener to respond when Flash Player receives descriptive information embedded in the video being played.

onTextData

Used for closed captioning in the Flash environment. Establishes a listener to respond when Flash Player receives text data embedded in a media file that is playing.

Opportunistic TLS

An opportunistic encryption mechanism which offers a way to upgrade a plain text connection to an encrypted (TLS or SSL) connection instead of using a separate port for encrypted communication. Several protocols use a command named "STARTTLS" for this purpose.

P


Packet

Formatted unit of data carried by a packet-switched network. When data is formatted into packets, packet switching is possible and the bandwidth of the communication can be better shared among users than with circuit switching.

Packet Identifier

Abbreviated as PID. Identifies each table or elementary stream in an MPEG transport stream.

Payload

Sometimes referred to as the actual or body data. It is the cargo of a data transmission, or the part of the transmitted data which is the fundamental purpose of the transmission.

P-Frame

Predicted picture frame. A video compression picture type that can use data from previous frames to decompress.

PID

Abbreviation of Packet Identifier. Identifies each table or elementary stream in an MPEG transport stream.

Pillarboxing

Pillarboxing, or reversed letterboxing, is the display of an image within a wider image frame by adding lateral mattes (i.e., vertical bars at the sides).

Ping

Software utility used to test the reachability of a host on a network.

PIP

Abbreviation of Private Internet Protocol. Refers to connectivity into a private extranet network which by its design emulates the functioning of the Internet.

Playlist

A list of video or audio files that can be played back on a media player sequentially or in random order.

PMT

Program Map Table (PMT). A collection of PIDs available in a transport stream.

Poster Image

A reduced-size version of a picture or video, used to help in recognizing and organizing them. Sometimes referred to as the "thumbnail".

Post-Roll

A post-roll ad is one of four ad types used by an Ad Policy to specify when the ad plays. Post-Roll ads play after the content. 

Bumpers + Pre-roll + mediaObject + mediaObject-chapterPoint + Mid-roll +mediaObject + Post-roll

Pre-Roll

A pre-roll ad is one of four ad types used by an Ad Policy to specify when the ad plays. Pre-Roll ads play before the content. 

Bumpers + Pre-roll + mediaObject + mediaObject-chapterPoint + Mid-roll +mediaObject + Post-roll

Profiles

A series of features sets aimed at different applications. Most common are Baseline, Main, and High.

Program Guide

A menu-based system that provides the users of a media application with continuously updated menus displaying scheduling information for current and upcoming programming. 

Program Map Table

Program Map Table (PMT). A collection of PIDs available in a transport stream.

Property Expression

In computing, strings of text or an instruction to execute something that will return a value.

Provisioning

In general, provisioning means "providing" or making something available. ... In a storage area network (SAN), storage provisioning is the process of assigning storage to optimize performance. In telecommunications terminology, provisioning means providing a product or service, such as wiring or bandwidth.

PSIP

Program and System Information Protocol (PSIP) data. It is used in broadcast systems such as DVB, ATSC, and IPTV.

PuTTY

A free and open-source terminal emulator, serial console and network file transfer application. It supports several network protocols, including SCP, SSH, Telnet, rlogin, and raw socket connection.

Q 


Quick Sync Video

Quick Sync Video is Intel's brand for its dedicated video encoding and decoding hardware core.

R


Real-Time Messaging Protocol

Abbreviated as RTMP. A protocol for streaming audio, video and data over the Internet, used primarily between an Adobe Flash player and a server.

Real-time Transport Protocol

Abbreviated as RTP. A network protocol for delivering video and audio over IP networks.

Reference Input

The reference input lets you adjust the timing of the video outputs of your hardware. This is commonly used in large broadcast facilities where the video output needs to be accurately timed.

Remote Procedure Call

Abbreviated as RPC. In distributed computing, when a computer program causes a procedure (subroutine) to execute in another address space (commonly on another computer on a shared network), which is coded as if it were a normal (local) procedure call, without the programmer explicitly coding the details for the remote interaction.

REST

Abbreviation for Representational state transfer. A style of software architecture for distributed hypermedia systems.

Reversed Letterboxing

Reversed Letterboxing, or Pillarboxing, is the display of an image within a wider image frame by adding lateral mattes (i.e., vertical bars at the sides).

Round Robin Sequential

Transmits packets in first available network interface (NIC) slave through the last. This mode provides load balancing and fault tolerance.

RPC

Abbreviation of Remote Procedure Call. In distributed computing, when a computer program causes a procedure (subroutine) to execute in another address space (commonly on another computer on a shared network), which is coded as if it were a normal (local) procedure call, without the programmer explicitly coding the details for the remote interaction.

RPM

RPM Package Manager. Package management system used for .rpm files.

RTMP

Abbreviation of Real Time Messaging Protocol. A protocol for streaming audio, video and data over the Internet, used primarily between an Adobe Flash player and a server.

RTP

Abbreviation of Real-time Transport Protocol. A network protocol for delivering video and audio over IP networks.

S


Sampling

The reduction of a continuous time-signal to a discrete-time signal. 

Scalable Video Coding

Abbreviated as SVC. An extension of the video compression standard H.264/MPEG-4 AVC.

SCTE-35

ANSI/SCTE 35 2013 is a joint ANSI/Society of Cable and Telecommunications Engineers standard that describes the inline insertion of cue tones in MPEG-TS streams. The full standard name is "Digital Program Insertion Cueing Message for Cable."

SCTE-67

Recommended practice for Digital Program Insertion for Cable. In particular, the SCTE-67 document makes recommendations on how to maintain proper time synchronization between servers and splicers. These recommendations include the time synchronization method used between servers and splicers; methods for configuring splicer controlled Ad Insertion Systems; and methods for monitoring the proper timing of Cue Messages.

SCTE-104

ANSI/SCTE104 2012 is a joint ANSI/Society of Cable and Telecommunications Engineers standard that defines the Communications API between an Automation System and the associated Compression System that will insert SCTE 35 private sections into the outgoing Transport Stream.

Secure Reliable Transport

Abbreviated as SRT. A video streaming technology that brings the best quality live video over the worst networks. It accounts for packet loss, jitter, and fluctuating bandwidth, maintaining the integrity and quality of your video. With SRT, you can keep your streams secure and easily traverse firewalls. SRT is included with all Haivision streaming solutions.

Secure Shell

Secure Shell (SSH). A cryptographic network protocol for operating network services securely over an unsecured network.

Secure Sockets Layer

Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). Like its successor, Transport Layer Security (TLS), a cryptographic protocol that provides communications security over a computer network.

Security Target

Security Target (ST). An ST defines information assurance security and functional requirements for the given information system product, which is called the Target of Evaluation (TOE). An ST is a complete and rigorous description of a security problem in terms of TOE description, threats, assumptions, security objectives, security functional requirements (SFRs), security assurance requirements (SARs), and rationales. The SARs are typically given as a number 1 through 7 called Evaluation Assurance Level (EAL), indicating the depth and rigor of the security evaluation, usually in the form of supporting documentation and testing, that the product meets the SFRs.

Server Message Block

Server Message Block, also known as Common Internet File System (CIFS), operates as an application-layer network protocol mainly used for providing shared access to files, printers, and serial ports and miscellaneous communications between nodes on a network.

Server Set Identifier

Abbreviated as SSID. The primary name associated with an 802.11 wireless local area network (WLAN).

Service Principal

An application within Azure Active Directory, which is authorized to access resources or resource group in Azure. 

Simple Object Access Protocol

Abbreviated as SOAP. A protocol specification for exchanging structured information in the implementation of web services in computer networks.

SMB

Server Message Block, also known as Common Internet File System (CIFS), operates as an application-layer network protocol mainly used for providing shared access to files, printers, and serial ports and miscellaneous communications between nodes on a network.

SMTP

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. Standard protocol for email transmission.

SOAP

Abbreviation for Simple Object Access Protocol. A protocol specification for exchanging structured information in the implementation of web services in computer networks.

SRT

Abbreviation of Secure Reliable Transport. A video streaming technology that brings the best quality live video over the worst networks. It accounts for packet loss, jitter, and fluctuating bandwidth, maintaining the integrity and quality of your video. With SRT, you can keep your streams secure and easily traverse firewalls. SRT is included with all Haivision streaming solutions.

SRT extension

SubRip text files. File format used to store subtitles. Side car files that contains closed captioning data for a video file with a corresponding file name.

SSH

Secure Shell (SSH). A cryptographic network protocol for operating network services securely over an unsecured network.

SSID

Abbreviation of service set identifier. The primary name associated with an 802.11 wireless local area network (WLAN).

SSL

Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). Like its successor, Transport Layer Security (TLS), a cryptographic protocol that provides communications security over a computer network.

ST

Security Target (ST). An ST defines information assurance security and functional requirements for the given information system product, which is called the Target of Evaluation (TOE). An ST is a complete and rigorous description of a security problem in terms of TOE description, threats, assumptions, security objectives, security functional requirements (SFRs), security assurance requirements (SARs), and rationales. The SARs are typically given as a number 1 through 7 called Evaluation Assurance Level (EAL), indicating the depth and rigor of the security evaluation, usually in the form of supporting documentation and testing, that the product meets the SFRs.

Stream Bundling

Establishes a single network connection to send all RTMP adaptive bitrate streams to a CDN. Limelight and Ustream require the use of stream bundling, while Akamai recommends against it.

Streaming

Mulitmedia constantly received by and presented to an end-user while being delivered by a provider. 

Subnet Mask

The bitmask that when applied by a bitwise AND operation to any IP address in the network, yields the routing prefix. Subnet masks are also expressed in dot-decimal notation like an address. For example, 255.255.255.0 is the network mask for the 192.168.1.0/24 prefix.

SVC

Abbreviation of Scalable Video Coding. An extension of the video compression standard H.264/MPEG-4 AVC.

T


Target of Evaluation

Abbreviated as TOE. The product or system that is the subject of the evaluation.

TCP/IP

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP or TCP/IP). One of the main protocols of the Internet protocol suite that originated in the initial network implementation in which it complemented the Internet Protocol (IP).

Telemetry

The collection of measurements or other data at remote or inaccessible points and their automatic transmission to receiving equipment for monitoring. 

Thumbnail

A reduced-size version of a picture or video, used to help in recognizing and organizing them. Sometimes referred to as the "poster image."

Timecode

A sequence of numeric codes generated at regular intervals by a timing synchronization system.

Time-to-Live

Time-to-Live (TTL) for stream packets. Specifies the number of router hops the stream packet is allowed to travel/pass before it must be discarded.

TLB

Transmit Load Balancing. The outgoing traffic is distributed according to the current load and queue on each slave interface. Incoming traffic is received by one currently designated slave network interface. If this receiving slave fails, another slave takes over the MAC address of the failed receiving slave.

TLS

Abbreviation of Transport Layer Security. Like its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), a cryptographic protocol that provides communications security over a computer network.

TOE

Abbreviation of Target of Evaluation. The product or system that is the subject of the evaluation.

ToS

Type of Service (ToS). Specifies the desired quality of service (QoS). This value is assigned to the Type of Service field of the IP Header for the outgoing streams.

Transcode-Multiplexing

Transcode-Multiplexing (Transmux). A process that changes the format of a video or audio file while keeping some or all of the streams of the original file. It converts to another format without changing the file's contents.

Transcoding

The direct digital-to-digital data conversion of one encoding to another.

Transmission Control Protocol

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP or TCP/IP). One of the main protocols of the Internet protocol suite that originated in the initial network implementation in which it complemented the Internet Protocol (IP).

Transmit Load Balancing

(TLB). The outgoing traffic is distributed according to the current load and queue on each slave interface. Incoming traffic is received by one currently designated slave network interface. If this receiving slave fails, another slave takes over the MAC address of the failed receiving slave.

Transmux

Transcode-Multiplexing (Transmux). A process that changes the format of a video or audio file while keeping some or all of the streams of the original file. It converts to another format without changing the file's contents.

Transport Layer Security

Abbreviated as TLS. Like its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), a cryptographic protocol that provides communications security over a computer network.

Transport Stream segments

Transport Stream segments (TS segments). A delivery format for audio-video.

TS

MPEG Transport Stream (MTS, or TS). A standard format for transmission and storage of audio, video, and Program and System Information Protocol (PSIP) data. It is used in broadcast systems such as DVB, ATSC, and IPTV.

TS segments

Transport Stream segments (TS segments). A delivery format for audio-video.

TTL

Time-to-Live (TTL) for stream packets. Specifies the number of router hops the stream packet is allowed to travel/pass before it must be discarded.

Type of Service

Type of Service (ToS). Specifies the desired quality of service (QoS). This value is assigned to the Type of Service field of the IP Header for the outgoing streams.

U


UDP

Abbreviation of User Datagram Protocol. One of the core members of the Internet protocol suite. With UDP, computers can send messages (datagrams) to other hosts on the IP network

Unicast

A one-to-one transmission from one point in the network to another point. 

Uniform Resource Identifier

Abbreviated as URI. The Web naming/addressing technology that uses short strings to identify resources.

Uniform Resource Locator

Abbreviated as URL. A reference to a web resource that specifies its location on a computer network and a mechanism for retrieving it. A URL is a specific type of Uniform Resource Identifier (URI).

Universally Unique Identifier

Abbreviated as UUID. A 128-bit integer number that identifies resources. The format is a defined sequence of 32 hex digits grouped into chunks of 8-4-4-4-12.

Uplink

A connection from data communications equipment toward the network core. Also known as an upstream connection.

Upsert

To insert a row into a database table if it does not already exist, or update it if it does.

Upstream Connection

A connection from data communications equipment toward the network core. Also known as an uplink.

URI

Abbreviation for Uniform Resource Identifier. The Web naming/addressing technology that uses short strings to identify resources.

URL

Abbreviation of Uniform Resource Locator. A reference to a web resource that specifies its location on a computer network and a mechanism for retrieving it. A URL is a specific type of Uniform Resource Identifier (URI).

User Datagram Protocol

Abbreviated as UDP. One of the core members of the Internet protocol suite. With UDP, computers can send messages (datagrams) to other hosts on the IP network.

UUID

Abbreviation of Universally Unique Identifier. A 128-bit integer number that identifies resources. The format is a defined sequence of 32 hex digits grouped into chunks of 8-4-4-4-12.

V


Variable Bit Rate

Abbreviated as VBR. Streams that vary the amount of output data per time segment. VBR allows a higher bitrate to be allocated to the more complex segments of media streams while less space is allocated to less complex segments.

VBR

Abbreviation of Variable Bit Rate. Streams that vary the amount of output data per time segment. VBR allows a higher bitrate to be allocated to the more complex segments of media streams while less space is allocated to less complex segments.

VESA

Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA). A technical standards organization for computer display standards.

Video Bitrate

The number of bits used per unit of time to represent a video stream, typically measured in kilobits per second (kbps) or Megabits per second (Mbps).

Video Electronics Standards Association

Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA). A technical standards organization for computer display standards.

Video on Demand

Abbreviated as VoD. An interactive technology that allows users to select and view programming in real time or download programs and view them later.

Virtual Private Network

Abbreviated as VPN. Extends a private network across a public network and enables users to send and receive data across shared or public networks as if their computing devices were directly connected to the private network. 

VoD

Abbreviation of Video on Demand. An interactive technology that allows users to select and view programming in real time or download programs and view them later.

VPN

Abbreviation of Virtual Private Network. Extends a private network across a public network and enables users to send and receive data across shared or public networks as if their computing devices were directly connected to the private network. 

W


WAV

Waveform Audio File Format (called WAV for its filename extension). A Microsoft and IBM audio file format standard for storing an audio bitstream on PCs.

Waveform Audio File Format

Waveform Audio File Format (called WAV for its filename extension). A Microsoft and IBM audio file format standard for storing an audio bitstream on PCs.

Wirecast

A live video streaming production tool by Telestream. It allows users to create live or on-demand broadcasts for the web.

WebVTT

Web Video Text Tracks. A standard for displaying timed text in connection with the HTML5 <track> element.

Widget

software widget is a relatively simple and easy-to-use software application or component made for one or more different software platforms. In the instance of the Analytics module for HVC, widgets are the components added to the dashboard that collect and visualize the data.

Wizard

wizard, or assistant, is a sequence of dialog boxes or screens that interactively leads you through a series of complex, infrequently performed, or unfamiliar steps to achieve a task. Installation and configuration tasks commonly use wizards and assistants.

X


XML

Extensible Markup Language. Defines a set of rules for encoding documents that is both human-readable and machine-readable.

XML entity

An XML opening and closing tag in combination with its payload.

XML tag

A named XML entity, for example, <demo/>.

XOR Sequential

Transmits based on XOR formula. (Source MAC address is XOR'd with destination MAC address). This mode selects the same NIC slave for each destination MAC address and provides load balancing and fault tolerance.

Y


YCBCR

YCBCR or Y'CBCR. A family of color spaces used as a part of the color image pipeline in video and digital photography systems.

Z


& 


4K

4K resolution, also called 4K, refers to a horizontal screen display resolution in the order of 4,000 pixels. There are several different 4K resolutions in the fields of digital television and digital cinematography. In television and consumer media, 3840×2160 (4K UHD Flat Cropped) is the dominant 4K standard. In the movie projection industry, 4096×2160 (SMPTE ST 2036-1 or DCI 4K full frame) is the dominant 4K standard.

2160p

Applied to any format with a height of 2160 pixels, but it is most commonly used in reference to the 4K UHDTV resolution of 3840×2160 due to its association with the well-known 720p and 1080p HDTV formats. Although 3840×2160 is both a 4K resolution and a 2160p resolution, these terms cannot always be used interchangeably, since not all 4K resolutions are 2160 pixels tall, and not all 2160p resolutions are ≈4000 pixels wide.

 Acknowledgments...

This glossary was made possible due to the phenomenal efforts of Wikipedia and shared under the Creative Commons by Share-Alike License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ ).